Ovarian Cysts: What Every Woman Needs to Know

Ovarian Cysts: What Every Woman Needs To Know

Sacs filled with fluid are called Ovarian Cyst. Ovaries are on the side of the uterus, and eggs are formed inside them. They are developed during the childbearing years. There are no symptoms of ovarian cyst, and they are usually small and not harmful at all. Approximately 8 percent of premenopausal women grow large cysts that require care.

After menopause, ovarian cysts are less frequent. There is a greater risk of ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women with ovarian cysts.

Types Of Ovarian Blister

Types Of Ovarian Blister

Two main types of ovarian cyst are significant.

  • Follicle cyst: An ovary forms an egg in a tiny sac during the normal menstrual cycle is called a follicle. When the egg is entirely mature, the strand breaks into two-part to release an egg. If the follicle does not break into pieces, then a follicle cyst is formed. It has no symptoms, and it gets removed in one to three months. 
  • Corpus luteum Cyst: When the follicle releases an egg, the cell’s mass is formed because the empty follicle sac gets shrink. It causes pain and twists the ovary. For the following menstrual cycle, Corpus luteum cysts use hormones to develop an egg.

Another type of ovarian cysts which are less common

  • Dermoid: This contains tissue, such as hair, skin, or teeth, as they develop from embryonic cells and are also called teratomas. There are very minimal chances of cancer.
  • Cyst adenomas: They develop on the base of the ovary and are filled with mucous or watery liquid.
  • Endometriomas: These ovaries are very painful and cause a problem during the menstrual cycle.

Some ovaries like Dermoid cysts and cystadenomas become huge and move out of an ovary position. Sometimes Ovarian torsion is formed due to the twisting of an ovary, which is very painful. It stops the flow of blood to an ovary. 

Common causes of ovarian cyst

  • PregnancyOvarian cysts usually develop during the early pregnancy stage, and it helps during the pregnancy until the time placenta is formed. Sometimes it stays in the ovary for a more extended time during pregnancy until eight months, so it should be removed.
  • Severe pelvic infection: The cyst is formed because there is a risk of infection in the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
  • Hormonal problemsFunctional cysts are formed due to hormonal problems or by the use of drugs. It is harmless, and it does not require any treatment.
  • EndometriosisEndometriosis is a type of ovarian cysts that contains endometriosis tissue and are attached to the ovary and grows there. These ovaries are very painful and cause problems during the menstrual cycle. These ovarian cysts are formed in those women who have endometriosis issues. 

Sign and Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts:

Sign And Symptoms Of Ovarian Cysts

Most ovarian cysts don’t show any signs and symptoms and are very tiny.

There are no symptoms, but you might feel swelling, pain, and pressure in the abdomen. This pain is not for the whole day. It comes and goes. 

Severe pain occurs when the cyst ruptures. There is more rupture when the cyst gets bigger—vigorous activity, such as vaginal intercourse that affects the pelvis area. When a cyst twists your ovary, it causes nausea and pain.

Some of the symptoms of ovarian cyst are:

  • Unnecessary weight gain
  • Extreme pain during period
  • Painful bowel movements
  • Bleeding of vaginal
  • Pelvic pain
  • Bloating / or abdominal swelling
  • Breast tenderness
  • Need of urinating
  • Ache in the lower abdomen, on the side where the cyst is formed.

Types of surgery required to remove an ovarian cyst

  • Laparoscopy: This surgery is done first to check the pelvic area. The surgical makes a small cut on your stomach above or below the belly button to remove the ovarian cysts. This surgery is only done when ultrasound reports detect problems. 
  • Laparotomy: The doctor recommends this surgery if the cyst is cancerous and large. This cyst is removed through surgery, and then the cyst is examined in the lab to check cancerous symptoms. Women should visit a gynecologic oncologist and take monthly checkups to solve these issues. 

Diagnosing ovarian cysts

Diagnosing Ovarian Cysts
CT scanning

During a routine pelvic examination, your doctor can detect an ovarian cyst. Ultrasound is best for the confirmation of cysts. An ultrasonic test is an imaging test that uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of your inner organs. Ultrasound tests help assess the scale, position, shape, and structure of a cyst (filled with concrete or fluid).

Tools for the diagnosis of ovarian cysts include:

  • CT scanning: a medical imaging system for cross-sectional images of internal organ
  • MRI: a test using magnetic fields to generate accurate pictures of the internal bodies
  • Ultrasound computer: a visualization device for ovaries

Since most cysts are lost after several weeks or months, your doctor may not immediately prescribe a treatment plan. Instead, after a few weeks or months, they will repeat the ultrasound test to test the condition.

If the situation does not settle or the cyst grows in size, the doctor will ask for more testing to determine what causes your symptoms.

When to See a Doctor

Typically, ovarian cysts present no symptoms and always go away on their own. Seek urgent medical attention immediately if you suddenly experience severe pelvic pain, abdominal pain, bleeding, faintness, dizziness, fever, or rapid breathing.

Resources: Office on Women’s HealthMayo Clinic, and HealthLine