Prostate Cancer (Everything You Want to Know)

Prostate Cancer

In this article, you will learn about the symptoms and causes of prostate cancer, who is at risk, and how to treat it.

What is Prostate cancer?


Prostate cancer is the malignant growth of prostate cells that can metastasize to several organs and tissues such as the bone, lymph nodes, liver, and lungs. It rarely spread to the brain. The usual onset for prostate cancer is 50 years and above. 

The World Health Organization claims that prostate cancer is one of the five diseases that cause men’s death globally.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer causes

There’s no well-known cause for prostate cancer. The reason is unclear, but several factors can predispose a man to have prostate cancer, such as:

  • Older age
  • Genetic/ Family history of prostate cancer
  • Obesity (The risk of prostate cancer is considerably increased by obesity, say NHS).
  • Race: More common in African Americans
  • Diet high in processed meat, high-fat milk, red meat, or dairy.
  • Prostatitis

Signs of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer usually develops gradually, and most men have certain forms of prostate cancer without any visible signs, which makes prostate challenging to diagnose in the early stages. However, if you experience one or more of the following signs or symptoms, don’t hesitate to immediately contact your family doctor or therapist.

  • Back pain
  • Anemia (fatigue, lightheadedness, pallor)
  • Weight loss
  • Constipation
  • Hemospermia (blood in semen)
  • Burning, painful urination
  • Loss of bladder control
  • Erectile dysfunction (difficulty getting an erection)
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Weakness

Diagnosis of prostate cancer

  1. Biopsy( is the mainstay of diagnosis)
  2. Transrectal ultrasound
  3. The digital rectal examination will show a palpably enlarged prostate that is hard, rough, nodular, and fixed to the overlying mucosa.
  4. Elevated prostate-specific antigen(PSA).
  5. Cystoscopy (endoscopy of the bladder)

Treatment of Prostate Cancer

There is no single standard approach for treating prostate cancer because different prostate stages require other treatment methods. However, the most common treatments for prostate cancer are:

  • Leuprolide
  • Flutamide
  • Bicalutamide
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Androgen suppression therapy
  • Surgery (prostatectomy)

Note: Prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the prostate. There are two types: 

  • Simple prostatectomy (subtotal prostatectomy): is the removal of only part of the prostate.
  • Radical prostatectomy: this is removing the whole prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and vas deferens.

Conclusion

The best way to prevent prostate cancer is regular precautionary examinations. Talk to your family doctor about the need for cancer screening. Also, consider embracing a healthy lifestyle to minimize your risk.