High Blood Pressure: What’s the Cause?

High blood pressure, colloquially known as hypertension, is a health condition that has been creating ripples of concern among medical practitioners and patients alike. In simple terms, high blood pressure happens when the force of your blood against the artery walls is consistently too high. This medical condition can lead to severe health complications if left untreated, such as heart disease and stroke. Although it’s common, each person may experience high blood pressure differently, and the causes can vary considerably.

High Blood Pressure: What's the Cause?

Primary Cause: Genetic Factors

There’s a prevalent adage in medicine: “Genetics loads the gun, lifestyle pulls the trigger.” This rings especially true for hypertension. “There’s no denying that your genetics play a significant role in your risk for developing high blood pressure,” says family doctor Natalia Hapych. “If your parents or immediate family members have high blood pressure, there’s a chance you might develop it too.”

However, genetics is just one part of the equation. The interaction between your genes and your lifestyle choices is what ultimately determines whether you’ll develop high blood pressure.

Secondary Cause: Lifestyle Choices

Poor Diet

“You are primarily what you eat” is a phrase that resonates in the context of high blood pressure. A diet high in sodium and low in essential nutrients like potassium can cause your body to retain fluid, which increases blood pressure. Regularly consuming processed foods, which are typically high in sodium, can further exacerbate this issue.

Lack of Exercise

Physical activity is crucial for maintaining a healthy heart and blood vessels. When you’re inactive, your heart has to work harder to pump blood, resulting in high pressure within your arteries.

Smoking and Alcohol

Nicotine in cigarettes and other tobacco products can cause your blood vessels to constrict and your heart to beat faster, leading to temporary spikes in blood pressure. Chronic consumption can lead to long-term hypertension. Similarly, excessive alcohol can also raise your blood pressure and cause damage to your heart over time.

Underlying Health Conditions

Underlying health conditions can also contribute to high blood pressure. These include kidney disease, hormonal disorders, diabetes, and conditions like sleep apnea.


While stress doesn’t directly cause high blood pressure, it can lead to behaviors that increase your risk. “Stress can make you turn to unhealthy coping mechanisms like smoking, drinking alcohol, or eating unhealthy food, all of which can raise your blood pressure,” explains Dr. Hapych.

Managing stress through techniques such as massage, meditation, deep breathing, Tai chi, and yoga can not only help maintain healthy blood pressure but also improve your overall well-being.

Preventing and Managing High Blood Pressure

Some of the factors, such as genetics, can’t be controlled. However, making healthier lifestyle choices can significantly reduce your risk.

Here are some steps you can take:

  • Follow a balanced, low-sodium diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains.
  • Engage in regular physical activity.
  • Limit alcohol intake and avoid smoking.
  • Manage stress through healthy coping mechanisms.
  • Regularly monitor your blood pressure and maintain regular check-ups with your doctor.

Keep in mind high blood pressure is often a silent condition, meaning you may not notice any symptoms until it’s too late. Regular check-ups are critical for early detection and treatment.

Further Reading: 10 Ways to Prevent High Blood Pressure

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